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Text Elements

FI: 1. Promotion of conceptual disciplinary understanding

FI:2. Connection of disciplinary content to practical examples or learner lives

TM:5. Current news or popular media used to connect to the issue

TM:3. Content is related to prior learning

TM:4. Issues focused from the outset, and throughout the lesson

FI:3. Consideration of the disciplinary epistemic norms (e.g., nature of science, nature of history)

TM:6. Summative or formative assessment is used to probe understanding of disciplinary epistemic norms

FI:6. Focus on disciplinary practices (e.g., arguing like a historian, scientific modeling, evidence evaluation)

TM:1. Provision of scaffolding resources focused on epistemic disciplinary practices

RT:3 Evidence students are engaged in these disciplinary epistemic practices

TM:7. Summative or formative assessment is used to probe understanding of disciplinary epistemic practices

RT:4 Students collect or analyze evidence regarding the issue

FI:4. Focus on different perspectives on the issue

RT:3 Students assess different perspectives on the issue

FI:5. Focus on social or political aspects of the issue

RT:2 Students consider and negotiate the social or political aspects of the issue

TM:2 Provision of opportunities for self-reflection and metacognition regarding learning

RT:1 Teacher facilitates learning rather than authority

RT:2 Teacher has clear expertise on the lesson content

RT:5 Students engage with ethical aspects of the issue

CE:1 Classroom is collaborative and interactive

CE:2 Respect between students and teachers is mutual

Learning activity

Learning target

Pre-requisite of

Positive learning environment

Focus of learning

Pedagogic strategies

Mapping features adapted from the Classroom Observation Protocol for SSI-based instruction, Topçu, Foulk, Sadler, Pitiporntapin, Atabey, 2018

Items are individually rewritten to broaden focus beyond SSI, and to emphasise epistemic features. Hierarchy is introduced to make clear links between items.

The item categories are regrouped (numbers provide the original item inspiring the item.

Where numbers are preceded by letters, these are FI=Focus of Instruction; TM=Teaching Moves, RT=Role of teacher; CE=Classroom Environment.

Pre-requisite of