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Text Elements

Promotion of conceptual disciplinary understanding

Connection of disciplinary content to practical examples or learner lives

Current news or popular media used to connect to the issue

Related content to prior learning

Issues focused from the outset, and throughout the lesson

Consideration of the disciplinary epistemic norms (e.g., nature of science, nature of history)

Summative or formative assessment of 3

Focus on disciplinary practices (e.g., arguing like a historian, scientific modeling, evidence evaluation)

Provision of scaffolding resources

Evidence students are engaged in these activities

Summative or formative assessment of this

Students collect or analyze evidence regarding the issue

Focus on different perspectives on the issue

Students assess 4

Focus on social or political aspects of the issue

Students consider and negotiate 5

Provision of opportunities for self-reflection and metacognition regarding learning

Teacher facilitates learning rather than authority

Teacher has clear expertise on the lesson content

Students engage with ethical aspects of the issue

Classroom is collaborative and interactive

Respect between students and teachers is mutual

Mapping features of the Observation Protocol from Topçu, Foulk, Sadler, Pitiporntapin, Atabey, 2018

Learning activity

Learning target

Pre-requisite of

Positive learning environment